Stoicism a way of thinking that has been around for at least two thousand years. It began in Greece all those years back, then was taken up in Roman times, by Emperor Marcus Aurelius. A main focus was on deeper thinking, but more than that, actually living the thoughts they held to.
This thinking focused especially on four cardinal virtues -those of prudence, courage, justice, and temperance. When taking up Stoicism, one must take up these virtues, and live the things learned from these virtues.
Prudence is all about knowing what is right and wrong/good and bad, and acting in the best way possible, the right way, the good way to go throughout all of life. Doing the prudent thing is to do the good thing, the best thing, when looked at rationally and with the eye to the best for all, if relevant.
The virtue of Courage refers to well, to courage, being fearless in the face of danger, doing the right thing even at cost to self. It can also refer to simpler things, like forbearance, facing up to pain and continuing with what is your job to do. Be bold, be intrepid, bravely go where it is right for you to go. Do not do this to be dangerously foolhardy, do it to do the right thing, the best thing you can rationally do.
When looking at the virtue of Justice, it does well to consider it as social virtue, doing the moral/ethical thing. Kindness is involved with this, also fairness, goodwill, benevolence, all of these are encompassed by ‘Justice’. Doing the right thing no matter the hurt to yourself, as long as it is the rational thing, in keeping with who and what you are, this is a Stoic thing.
The final virtue is Temperance. This virtue is all about moderation, knowing when one has had enough and stopping at that point or before, never overindulging. Taking only what you need, is the Stoic way, not being greedy. More importantly, it refers to being self-aware, knowing how much you need. Having self-control shows having this virtue. It is akin to what the contemporary person may call Mindfulness.
So there are some of my thoughts about these four important aspects of Stoicism, I welcome the thoughts of others regarding what I have written and regarding these important virtues.